Gradle - A Better Way to Build
presented by Hans Docketer
Note that any references to the Gradle User Guide from this blog entry are to version 0.8, as that was the most recent GA version at the time of writing. If you are using a later version of Gradle, you can might want to check the latest User Guide instead.
Hans is the creator and lead developer of the Gradle build system. He’s also the CEO of Gradle Inc., a consulting company specialising in project automation.
First up, Hans explained that Gradle is actually mostly written in Java, with only the DSL being written in Groovy.
Gradle supports building Java, Scala, Groovy, Web projects, etc.
It appeared very easy to add a Maven dependency into the classpath. (Probably easier than in Maven!)
He demoed an example of developing a small, custom build operation that copied an image (of Rod Johnson) into the META-INF/ directory of any output JARs that had 'spring' in the name. While this was possible with only a few lines of code, I have to say that the code wasn’t all that intuitive and I think you would have to know quite a lot about the way Gradle structures things before you can easily write tasks like this yourself.
There’s a very easy method for importing Gradle tasks from external sources by specifying not much more than a URL.
Hans said that, in comparing Gradle to Maven and Ant, he believes the use of Groovy in Gradle instead of XML is not the main differentiator, but its design is where the gains come from.
He gave a pretty impressive demo of how Gradle detects changes in sources, tests, classpaths and even the Gradle script itself, and then only rebuilds those parts of the project that absolutely need to be built (and, of course, the things that depend on them).
While Gradle can be used to build projects that aren’t written in Groovy, it was my observation that you probably need to have a fair level of proficiency in Groovy in order to compose anything other than a basic build script.
It’s pretty easy to separate the declarative parts of a custom task from the imperative parts by defining a class at the bottom of the script that. (I found it interesting that, even though the syntax of a Gradle file is mostly declarative, Hans was still referring to the file as a 'script'.)
Gradle exhibits heavy integration with Ant that is also bi-directional, i.e. Ant tasks can depend on Gradle tasks.
Hans highlighted that Maven’s defaults (which he called a “strong opinion”) for things like project directory structure are one reason that people will avoid migrating existing projects to Maven. While this might be true, I think it’s based on a misconception - in reality, it’s quite trivial to override the defaults of things directory locations in a Maven POM.
Gradle uses coloured output, which I think is pretty cool for a Java-based build tool.
Hans noted that the flexibility of Groovy means that creating custom operations in a build script is pretty easy. Having seen smart people spend a week or two writing a pretty simple custom plugin for Maven, I think making the customisation process easier is definitely a win. (On the other hand, in four years of using Maven, we've only ever created one Mojo. We have, though, often used the Ant plugin to "break out of the box".)
Hans gave a demonstration of dependencies between sub-projects of a larger project which was pretty impressive, showing Gradle building and testing both dependency and dependant projects based on what changes had occurred.
He talked about how performance is a big focus of Gradle, in particular getting the dependency and change behaviour right to ensure that Gradle only ever builds things that have been affected by changes.
Gradle is able to generate a pom.xml file for a project and deploy an artefact to a Maven repository along with the generated POM.
Gradle doesn’t support (out of the box) a ‘release’ action like Maven’s Release Plugin (which creates branches and tags in the code repository, deploys build artefacts to a remote repository and automatically updates version numbers in the build files on head/trunk to the next snapshot). However, Hans said that they eventually want to develop a full deployment pipeline based on Gradle, which will be one of the focus points after version 1.0 has been released.
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